Topic: Influenza Pandemic - Linwood Cemetery

Topic type:

A brief description of the effect of the Influenza Pandemic of 1918 on Linwood Cemetery, Christchurch, NZ

There are excellent accounts of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Dr Geoffrey W. Rice's book Black November (2005) and the revised version Black Flu 1918 (2017) as well as other books, academic papers and history pages from local libraries easily accessed by a Google search.

In essence, a mutating A/H1N1 flu virus from wild ducks is believed by many to have spread from Kansas, USA via troop camps and their subsequent movements into the end of the 1914-18 European theatre of war. The virus, which went global, arrived in New Zealand at the end of September 1918 with a more potentent mutation active from the middle of October. This reached its peak on 19th November and lost its impetus in Christchurch by the end of December 1918.  "You could go to work with no symptoms and be dead by the end of the day." (Dr Stephen Clarke, Historian, 2018)

In total, according to Dr. Rice's original research, there were 458 victims in Christchurch (4.9 per 1000 of the local population).  We now make the total 474. There are 12 people buried in Linwood Cemetery not on Dr Rice's List yet notified in the newspapers of the time as having died of influenza or pneumonia.

The pandemic had a significant impact on Linwood Cemetery. As the main central public cemetery at the time, Linwood received the majority of those identified as having died from the flu or pneumonia (232 persons), more than twice as many as Sydenham Cemetery (104 persons). The CCC cemeteries database show no public cemetery listing for 112 of the victims on Dr Rice's list.  This implies they were buried in church cemeteries open at the time or, with a slight chance,buried out of the area.  Other public cemeteries open at the time interred a total of 26 persons (Addington [11], Belfast [2], Bromley [2], Lyttelton Anglican [2]), Lyttelton Public [1], Rutherford []) Waimairi [3]).

As there was an “abnormal demand for burials”, special measures had to be put in place at Linwood Cemetery. On 20th November, the Town Clerk Mr Henry Rowe SMITH (Block 32 Plot 182) stated that “a supply of coffins has been secured...not elaborate, but they would be quite respectable”. A marquee was put up at the cemetery to be used as a morgue and two clerks were employed “constantlyat the Council offices to record the detailed information required before a burial was allowed.

Some of Christchurch's tram cars were converted into inhalation chambers where the public could be sprayed by the converted compressed air brakes of the tram and inhale zinc sulphate. At the height of the epidemic, 23 tram cars were positioned around the city. On 21st November, the newspapers reported that “an inhalation car has been stationed by the Tramway Board at the Linwood Cemetery for the use of persons attending funerals it would have got there using the tram line that ran from the city centre into the cemetery.

Another issue ensuing from the increased number of burials was the requirement for a religious Minister to officiate at a funeral as the churches were closed as a precaution against the spread of the virus. For catholics, the Requiem Mass was conducted at the graveside often with several priests in attendance.  By the 19th November a rota of one Protestant clergyman on duty from 7am to 1pm and another from 1pm to 7pm each day was implemented.

We do not know how many extra grave diggers were employed, or where from, in a community which had already lost so many of its young men to war, but it is certain they were needed as graves were dug by hand. In some cemeteries in NZ the grave diggers worked 24 hours shifts.  Looking at the burial dates on the CCC Cemetery Database people were buried within one, two or occasionally three days of death, the latter which may be due to the late evening being the time of death.  Burials were also having to be dug in Sydenham Cemetery to a similar rate as in Linwood Cemetery.

The total number of burials in the cemetery for this 96 day period was 425 of which 219 are known to be flu related and 206 from other causes. It is convievable that around 10% of the "other deaths" were also flu related but not recorded us such. There was a significant rise from an average of 3 deaths per day during October and the beginning of November to an average of 8 between 10th November and 14th November. The numbers then rose steeply on the 15th November increasing until the 25th November to 27 deaths.  The number of deaths dropped again on 27th November to an average of 5 deaths per day into the first week in December then declining to normal of 0,1 or 2 per day. The 12 days (15th November - 26thNovember) when the deaths per day were highest followed the "Carnival Week" (now the A&P Show and Cup Days) and following 11th November Armistice celebrations.  This may be why we see several farmers on the list of occupations.  Many soldiers were "back at home" on furrlough for the same reason.

Graph of Burials by Year 

Graph showing the number of burials in Linwood Cemetery per year with a significant  spike for 1918.

Graph - Number of Deaths per Date 

It is no surprise that members of the medical profession succombed to the infection too. The Nurses Memorial Chapel is currently researching this impact of the pandemic.

Nurse Hilda HOOKER The Friends of Linwood Cemetery and the Nurses Memorial Chapel researchers originally thought Nurse Hilda HOOKER (Block 35 Plot 284) was a survivor from TS Marquette which sank off the coast of Egypt in 1915. Further study has revealed that there are 2 different nurses named Hilda HOOKER and the person buried in Linwood was not on the Marquette, but a 2nd year probationer who died at Christchurch Hospital from influenza on 21 November 1918.

Dr Aubrey SHORT Dr Aubrey V. SHORT (Block 48 Plot 105) died from influenza at Christchurch Hospital on 15th November 1918 aged 28 years. He had received his medical diploma in 1914 at the outbreak of war and left as a surgeon-captain with the first contingent landing at Gallipoli on the first day of the attack there. His brother Leslie was killed on 8th August 1915 in the same campaign. Later Aubrey served in France until November 1917 having been promoted to Major and appointed Deputy-Assistant Director of Medical Services. He also received the Military Cross. He had returned to New Zealand in January 1918 and joined the staff at Christchurch Hospital in March as a senior house-surgeon only to die 10 months later from the flu..

Nurse Grace BESWICK Nurse Grace Campbell BESWICK aged 25 died on 25th November. She is buried in Block 28 Plot 64.

Linwood Cemetery Block 5 Plot 8 LITTLE Dr Charles Thomas Wilson LITTLE, MB ChB, Medical Officer for Waikari died on 26th November 1918 aged 52 from pneumonia following the flu. His wife Hephzibah aged 35 and a nurse, died 4 days later also from flu. They are buried together in Block 5 Plot 8.

Little Company of Mary Headstone Linwood Cemetery Block 45 Plot 196 Sister Mary Frederick [birth name Agnes REYNOLDS], a 35 year old nun from the religious Order The Little Company of Mary died from flu on 29th November while nursing at Lewisham Hospital. She is buried in the Order's communal grave plot in Block 45 Plot 196.

Block 35 Plot 311A CLARKE, Catherine Nursing Sister Catherine CLARK was also a Deaconess in the Methodist Church at Addington.  She died on 22 November 1918, three days after her brother John died.  She is buried in Block 35 Plot 311A in the Methodist section and he in Block 48 Plot 248.

Block 35 Plot 207 Hilda KIDD Hilda Margaret KIDD a 37 year old nurse from Ashburton worked in Christchurch.  She was "a most enthusiastic and self sacrificing worker in the present epidemic." (Star, 28 November, 1918). Her father, deceased by 1918, had been a blacksmith of Scottish origin.  Nurse KIDD left bequests of £100 to the Ashburton RSA and £50 each to the Christchurch RSA, Presbyterian Orphanage and Nurse Maude Hospital; significant amounts of money at the time. She is buried in Block 35 Plot 207.

Then there is the tragedy of those who served in World War 1 and died of influenza while still overseas or in a NZ Training Camp; and the further tragedy of those who survived service in World War 1 to return home and then die from influenza, in some cases fatally infecting their family members.

Block 41 Plot 110 DWYER Police Superintendent John DWYER of Hereford Street, lost a son Sgt Tom DWYER during the 1914-18 war. His son John Joseph, Clerk of the Court died from influenza in New Plymouth on 9th November 1918.  He was due to be married in December.  His brother James Cecil, a Gunner in the army, died from influenza two days later.  The brothers, catholics, had a double funeral and are buried in the family grave in Block 41 Plot 110.

Those buried in Linwood Cemetery and confirmed of having died from Influenza or it's complications are: 

SURNAME   FIRST NAME   DATE OF DEATH DATE OF BURIAL Block ext Plot ext Occupation Age
ABLETT Frederick Cornelius 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 36 A 70   Grocer 45
ADCOCK Lydia 16/11/1918 19/11/1918 48   171   Widow 69
ALDOUS Eliza Sarah Ellen 25/11/1918 26/11/1918 34   18   Unknown 33
ANDERSON Francis William 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 44   101   Carrier 35
BALFOUR Thomas Austin 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 3
64
Warehouseman 17
BALLIN Ernest Hyman 16/11/1918 17/11/1918 16
47
Dentist 37
BARLOW Nellie Lorine 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
73
Unknown 49
BARNS Barbara Isabella 26/11/1918 27/11/1918 33
102
Shop Assistant 35
BARRITT John 10/11/1918 12/11/1918 48
119
Tobacconist 69
BARTLETT Eva 02/12/1918 03/12/1918 16 A 1 A Unknown 36
BEKEN Charles John 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 46
6
Child 5
BESWICK Grace Campbell 25/11/1918 27/11/1918 25
64
Nurse 25
BETTLE May Elizabeth 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
161
Unknown 35
BLACK Jessie Pearl Cestrian 22/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
72
Unknown 23
BOOKER Frederick Leslie 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
155
Solicitor 27
BOYCE Alice Maud 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
96
Unknown 37
BRIDGER Frances 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
229
Unknown 58
BRIDGER Joseph Henry 23/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
229
Fishmonger 24
BROWN James 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 45
278
Warehouseman 19
BROWN Lionel Waddell 22/11/1918 23/11/1918 34
9
Exchange Clerk 21
BROWN Martha 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 45
277
Unknown 45
BROWN Mary Jane 10/11/1918 12/11/1918 41
66
Widow 38
BROWNE Alice Ruth 12/11/1918 14/11/1918 48
151
Unknown 23
BRUTON Clara 21/11/1918 21/11/1918 17
159
Unknown 53
BURN John Charles Stuart 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
196
Secretary 32
BUTTERFIELD Frederick 16/11/1918 18/11/1918 48
111
Unknown 33
BYRNE John Haughton 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 46
49
Store Keeper 33
CARMAN Philip James 03/11/1918 06/11/1918 36 A 136
Engineer 70
CARSON Frank 02/12/1918 02/12/1918 48
159
Brick Layer 42
CARTER Elizabeth Maud 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
101
Unknown 34
CARTER Mabel Amelia 26/11/1918 28/11/1918 48
228
Unknown 26
CARTER Thelma Florence 27/11/1918 28/11/1918 48
228
Infant 23m
CHADDERTON Garibaldi 01/12/1918 02/12/1918 48
80
Iron Moulder 31
CHAMMEN James 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 20
121
Driver 40
CHEETHAM Harold 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 47
29
Unknown 41
CHILDS Charles Edward 23/11/1918 24/11/1918 44
88
Hairdresser 32
CLARK Catherine 22/11/1918 24/11/1918 35
311 A Nurse 42
CLARK John 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 48
248
Clerk 39
COCHRANE George Douglas 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 48
175
Accountant 29
COLLINS Alice 18/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
82
Unknown 16
COOMBE Albert 16/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
233
Soldier 34
COOMBE Barbara Maud 25/11/1918 26/11/1918 48
233
Infant 2
CORY Frederick Samuel 03/10/1918 05/10/1918 35
315
Boot Maker 37
CROCKETT Walter Norman 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 36 A 144
Unknown 34
CROOKE Stephen Edward 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 46
67
Boot Maker 54
D’OYLEY Charlotte 04/11/1918 06/11/1918 25   100   Widow 60
DAVIES David Henry 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 36
140
Painter 33
DEAN Henry 21/11/1918 24/11/1918 17
96
Labourer 35
DITFORT Annie Grace 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 22
112
Unknown 23m
DIXON Janet 20/12/1918 22/12/1918 36 A 12
Widow 75
DIXON Peter 28/10/1918 30/10/1918 36 A 130
Salesman 25
DRAKE James Pottinger 14/11/1918 16/11/1918 13
25
Retired Traveller 70
DUCKMANTON Violet Florence 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
227
Unknown 21
DUNN Joseph Henry 20/11/1918 21/11/1918 9
14
Engraver 38
DWYER James Cecil 11/11/1918 14/11/1918 41
110
Clerk 20
DWYER John Joseph 09/11/1918 14/11/1918 41
110
Clerk of Court 31
EALAM Ernest Arthur 16/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
149
Unknown 22
EASTERBROOK William George 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 36
464
Engineer 26
EATON Jean 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 48
104
Unknown 47
EDGE Roland Barnsley 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
1
Unknown 26
ELWOOD Edward Walter 26/11/1918 28/11/1918 48
187
Advertising Agent 53
ERIKSON Mildred 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 11
3
Unknown 28
ESLICK Joseph 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 26
58
Tobacconist 58
FABLING Elizabeth 07/10/1918 10/10/1918 48
147
Married 80
FISHER Leonard George 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
11
Labourer 19
FOGGIN James Thomas 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 36 A 175
Clerk 25
FOLEY Lucy Florence 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 34
16 A Unknown 51
FORBES Thomas 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 36
49
Soldier 28
FRASER Robert John 18/11/1918 19/11/1918 36
463
Soldier 31
GALVIN Margaret 26/11/1918 27/11/1918 46
69
Child 12
GIBBS Edward Leo 26/11/1918 28/11/1918 46
53
Unknown 18
GIBBS Walter Ford 24/10/1918 22/01/1920 11
1
Labourer 30
GILLIES Herbert Hector Clyde 10/11/1918 13/11/1918 36 A 165
Mercer 21
GLEN Margaret Catherine 21/11/1918 22/11/1918 30
194
Unknown 44
GOODRICH Arthur Gordon 11/11/1918 14/11/1918 36
92
Returned Soldier 24
GORMAN William 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 46
8
Driver 25
GOUGH Michael Francis 13/11/1918 15/11/1918 42
49
Chemist 24
GRAY Charles Lowrie 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
79
Soldier 23
GREEN Lily Hannah 01/12/1918 03/12/1918 48
45
Tailoress 24
HAMBLY William 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
252
Unknown 70
HAMILTON Lilian Amelia 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 24
207
Unknown 28
HANCOCK Edward 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 13
68
Engine Driver 35
HANHAM Edwin James 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
185
Unknown 25
HANHART Herbert Gerard 29/11/1918 30/11/1918 17
179
Piano Tuner 32
HARKER Vera Summers 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
236
Unknown 31
HARRIS William George 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
250
Unknown 40
HARVEY Joseph Thomas 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 46
12
Unknown 36
HARWOOD Hubert Edward 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
192
Carpenter 32
HAY Robert 14/11/1918 16/11/1918 31 A 208
Tailor 46
HENDERSON Elsie Mary 26/11/1918 28/11/1918 48
106
Unknown 25
HIGHSTED Jane 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 34
32
Unknown 70
HILL Arthur Henry 29/11/1918 01/12/1918 48
74
Unknown 30
HILL Jacob Seaborn 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 34
74 A Stonemason 44
HODGSON Mary 28/10/1918 30/10/1918 40
140
Spinster 61
HOGGAN Emma Elizabeth 26/11/1918 28/11/1918 38
283
Unknown 49
HOLLAND Thomas William 26/11/1918 27/11/1918 36 A 179
Accountant 36
HOOKER Hilda 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 35
284
Nurse 22
HORGAN Thomas 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 46
1
Sanatorium 31
HUGHES James 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
153
Unknown 66
HULME Charles 30/10/1918 01/11/1918 36 A 112
Retired Coachman 61
HUMPHRIES Alexanderia Gendinning 21/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
195
Soldier 21
JACKSON Elwyn Henry 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
107
Bank Officer 51
JACKSON Ivor Milton 22/11/1918 24/11/1918 46
21
Unknown 35
JERMAN Harold Claude 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
245
Unknown 20
JONES Thomas 29/11/1918 30/11/1918 18
264
Unknown 56
JUSTICE William 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 34
31
Unknown 39
KENNEDY Alice Mildred 13/11/1918 15/11/1918 36 A 177
Unknown 36
KENNEDY Elizabeth Elsie 12/11/1918 15/11/1918 46
23
Housewife 26
KERNAHAN Violet 20/11/1918 21/11/1918 48
192
Unknown 30
KERR Charles Edward 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 21
155
Traveller 19
KIDD Hilda Margaret 27/11/1918 28/11/1918 35
207
Nurse 38
KILWORTH Daphne 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 36
47 NWC Infant 16m
LAGAN Lawrence Henry 22/11/1918 24/11/1918 42
204
Engine Driver 33
LE SUEUR Mary Jean 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
178
Unknown 39
LEEMING Pearl Estelle 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
231
Unknown 43
LEVIEN Louisa 02/12/1918 03/12/1918 16
78
Housewife 51
LITTLE Charles Thomas Wilson 26/11/1918 27/11/1918 5
8
Medical Offiicer (Waikari)  
LITTLE Hephzibah 30/11/1918 02/12/1918 5
8
Widow / Nurse 35
LUKE William Duncan 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 35
209
Constable 45
LUMMIS May 24/11/1918 25/11/1918 48
189
Spinster 35
MACE Mary Rose 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
239
Unknown 38
MACFARLANE David Malcolm 14/11/1918 16/11/1918 32
166
Shepherd 25
MAHER Rose 23/11/1918 26/11/1918 45
274
Unknown 41
MALONEY Mary 30/11/1918 02/12/1918 46
51
  29
MARCH Charles Alfred Oakley 12/11/1918 15/11/1918 48
14
Theatre Manager 42
MARSHALL Janet Louise 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 34
4 A Unknown 36
MARTYN William 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 32
392
Soldier 35
MCCORMACK George 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 35
380
Butcher 47
MCCRACKEN Lily 27/11/1918 29/11/1918 36
61
Unknown 19
MCDONALD Hilda Elizabeth 16/11/1918 19/11/1918 46
55
Machinist 23
MCILWRAITH Thomas Ivie 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 35
380 A Cycle Mechanic 29
MCNAE Ethel May 16/11/1918 18/11/1918 48
108
Unknown 34
MEDLEY Kate 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 35
354
Unknown 30
MEIER Adalph 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 20
42
Bootmaker 39
METCALF Rebecca 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 34
17
Unknown 27
MIDGLEY William 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 48
242
Carpenter 31
MILLS Christian Murray W. 30/09/1918 02/10/1918 36 A 129
Married 44
MINCHIN Frederick William 01/12/1918 03/12/1918 46
31
Taxi Proprietor 42
MOODY James 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 35
241 A Unknown 83
MOORE Robert Montgomery 28/11/1918 30/11/1918 34
87
Printer 44
MORRISON Wilson Cameron 25/11/1918 27/11/1918 48
148
Major (Soldier?) 43
MOSES Charles James 13/11/1918 14/11/1918 36 A 167
Tin Smith 33
MOSES Elsie Isabel 05/11/1918 07/11/1918 36 A 167
Child 8
MUCKLOW Albert 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
168
Motor Driver 24
MULFORD James 25/11/1918 26/11/1918 47
81
Labourer 87
MULLON Jane 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 34
18 A Unknown 72
NICHOLLS Ada Valentine 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 31 A 38
Tailoress 29
NOALL Florence Agnes 16/12/1918 16/12/1918 46
65
Unknown 26
NUTTALL Thomas Alfred 14/10/1918 16/10/1918 47
158 SEC Infant 2
O'MALLEY Francis Patrick 13/11/1918 15/11/1918 38
36
Cabinet Maker 25
OLIVER Mary Margaret 25/11/1918 26/11/1918 34
89
Unknown 41
PARKER Florrie 16/11/1918 17/11/1918 34
32 A Unknown 33
PASCOE William Henry 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
8
Shunter 34
PIERSON Ben Thyre 22/11/1918 24/11/1918 17
128
Contractor 26
PRATT Thomas 25/11/1918 27/11/1918 36 A 171
Unknown 75
QUEREE Eileen Mary 04/11/1918 06/11/1918 36 A 150
Married 25
READ Catherine Forister 16/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
103
Unknown 50
REDDINGTON Mary Lilian 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 33
44
Unknown 32
REYNOLDS Agnes 29/11/1918 30/11/1918 45
196
Nurse / nun 32
REYNOLDS Leslie Raymond Frederick 16/11/1918 18/11/1918 47
158 NEC Infant 2.5
RHODA Joseph 18/11/1918 19/11/1918 44
126
Mechanic 26
RINGDALL Alfred 18/11/1918 22/11/1918 46
2
Unknown 38
RITCHIE James Cathcart 24/11/1918 25/11/1918 35
284 A Unknown 43
ROBB Mary Margaret Lyle 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 34
46 A Unknown 20
ROBERTSON Alex 13/11/1918 16/11/1918 36
448
Cabinet Maker 32
ROBERTSON George Redford 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 34
93
Unknown 35
ROGERS Amelia May 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 24
311
Unknown 19
ROSE Mary Dorothea 06/12/1918 07/12/1918 46
11
Unknown 44
ROUND Arthur Leonard 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 17
177
Unknown 33
ROUSE Robert 11/11/1918 14/11/1918 46
20
Town Clerk – Kumara 48
RUGG James 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
202
Hotel Keeper 88
RUGG Thomas 07/11/1918 10/11/1918 48
201
Agent 40
RUMBLE Annie 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 45
219
Married 26
RYAN Mary 12/11/1918 14/11/1918 43
256
Unknown 71
SANTY Mavis 01/12/1918 02/12/1918 46
249 SWC Child 7
SAWTELL Frederick William 24/11/1918 25/11/1918 43
178
Unknown 58
SCHOU Hector Meredith 20/11/1918 23/11/1918 5
32
Infant 3y8m
SEATTER Mary 25/11/1918 27/11/1918 36 A 169
Unknown 25
SELFE Florence 19/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
76
Unknown 34
SHAND Frank 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
164
Brewer 32
SHAND Lancelot James 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 11
13
Unknown 15
SHAW Edith May 16/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
71
Unknown 30
SHORT Aubrey Vincent 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
105
Doctor 28
SHORT Leslie Record 11/11/1918 12/11/1918 48
148
Labourer 21
SHUTTLEWORTH Thomas Rex 18/10/1918 21/10/1918 48
115
Infant 5w
SIMPSON Allan Winifred 14/11/1918 16/11/1918 36
516
Unknown 16
SKILLING William 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
156
Customs Officer 35
SLESSER Ivy Mary 02/12/1918 03/12/1918 23
74
Typist 28
SMITH James Little 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 35
241
Farmer 18
SMITH Norton Ranson 02/12/1918 04/12/1918 48
77
Restaurant Proprietor 72
SOUPER John Thomas 11/11/1918 13/11/1918 48
226
Hotel Keeper 47
SOWMAN Roderick 27/11/1918 28/11/1918 48
160
Unknown 38
SPICER Mary Ann 31/10/1918 04/11/1918 18
132
Widow 95
STACE Owen William 28/11/1918 29/11/1918 20
187
Carrier 25
STOCK Enid Emily Gwendoline 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 20
140
Child 13.5
STRATFORD Henry Anthony 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 38
129
Driver 24
SUNDERLAND Jack 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 17
181
Unknown 26
SUTTON Rosalie Agnes 18/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
170
Unknown 16
SWITALLA Fanny 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 46
61
Unknown 29
TATNELL Elizabeth Hannah 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 20
226
Unknown 31
TATNELL Iris May 22/11/1918 24/11/1918 47
154
Infant 1
TAVENDER Basil Noel G. 16/11/1918 18/11/1918 48
98
Soldier 27
THOMAS Kenneth Malcolm 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 48
234
Carrier 38
THOMPSON Olive Jane 15/11/1918 17/11/1918 48
143
Unknown 20
THOMSON Donald Stephen 12/11/1918 14/11/1918 48
6
Insurance Agent 37
THOMSON Hilda 21/11/1918 23/11/1918 48
6
Unknown 36
TULLOCH James 16/11/1918 18/11/1918 31 A 160
Builder 39
VAGG William Henry 20/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
166
Caretaker 64
VIRTUE Ernest William 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 33
89
Grocer 30
VOICE Clifford James 23/11/1918 25/11/1918 24
81
Coach Builder 46
VOICE Thomas 19/11/1918 22/11/1918 48
10
Railway Employee 46
WARBURTON Richard 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 48
194
Gardener 26
WARNER Harry Owen 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 20
40
Motor Mechanic 26
WASHER Leslie Reginald 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 26
13
Unknown 30
WATSON Richard John 17/11/1918 19/11/1918 46
59
Unknown 19
WELTON Mary Jane 13/11/1918 14/11/1918 48
110
Unknown 52
WHITE Jeanne Augusta 23/11/1918 24/11/1918 46
14
Unknown 31
WIGZELL Arthur 22/11/1918 26/11/1918 48
210
Unknown 26
WILLIAMS Albert 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 34
61 A Salesman 42
WILLIAMS James Henry 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 36 A 100
Unknown 38
WILLIS Emma May 18/11/1918 20/11/1918 36
47 SEC Infant 2
WILLOUGHBY Elizabeth Jane 02/11/1918 04/11/1918 36 A 135
Widow 71
WILSON Marie Rosa 19/11/1918 21/11/1918 46
23
Child 9
WILSON William Stephen 25/11/1918 27/11/1918 33
46
Clerk 54
WIND Herman 17/11/1918 22/11/1918 34
46
Labourer 45
WITBROCK Joan 24/11/1918 25/11/1918 47
158 SWC Infant 15d
WORKMAN Robert Stenton 28/10/1918 30/10/1918 36 A 134
Manufacturer 31
WORSDALE James Maurice 02/12/1918 04/12/1918 46
250 NWC Infant 19m
WRIGHT Winifred Bertha 24/11/1918 26/11/1918 35
301 A Child 12
YEATMAN Albert 17/11/1918 20/11/1918 48
7
Butcher 31
YOUNG Joseph F. Herbert 15/11/1918 18/11/1918 34
61
Clerk 24

In Linwood Cemetery, there are many personal memorials on family headstones to those people who died where they were serving or in military training.  The Friends of Linwood Cemetery have created a Roll of Honour of those who gave their life or youth to serving their country in war and are buried or memorialised in the cemetery  Of the 42 men we know died in 1918 to early1919;  27 died from influenza at home or abroad, the pandemic still active on the Western Front in army hospitals in February 1919.  The following is a list of those of the 7 who died elsewhere of influenza related illness and have memorials in Linwood Cemetery, those buried in the cemetery are included in the list above. 

Block Plot Service # Rank FAMILY NAME First Name(s) Regt Died (location) Died date Age Other Information (from AWMM Cenotaph)
41 6 72093 Gunner CAHILL Hugh Angelo Cassidy 40th Reinforcements NZFA buried at sea en route from NZ 02/09/1918 21 Enlisted on his 20th birthday and died of influenza en route from NZ to Plymouth.
36A 42 72083 Private STEVENSON Thomas James NZEF, 40th Reinforcements, Specialist Company buried at sea en route from NZ 07/09/1918 21 Died from sickness possibly influenza whilst on HM Troopship Tahiti.
36A 86 12/303 Sargent BLYTH Andrew Jackson Main Body NZEF, Auckland Infantry Hamadan, Persia (Tehran) 04/10/1918 28 Died of disease – pneumonia (assume influenza related).
29 124 83390 Gunner JAMIESON William Livingston(e) NZ Training Unit Featherston Military Camp 14/11/1918 38 Died of influenza at Featherston Training Camp.
15 250 2/721 Staff Sargent WEST Leonard A. Main Body, NZ Field Artillery Woking,England 05/02/1919 26 Died of disease (assume influezna related).
46 55 10196 Driver MCDONALD Donald James AIF, 2nd Div Ammo Colmn Charleroi Communal Cemetery, France 12/02/1919 22 Died of disease – pneumonia (assume influenza related).
28 149 6/3459 Warrant Officer SEAY Clarence Adrian 8th Reinforcements, Germany 20/02/1919 26 Died of influenza.

 

References:

Rice, G. W. (2017), Black flu 1918, Canterbury, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Rice, G. W. (2018, July).Why did Wellington suffer nearly double the death rate of Christchurch in the 1918 influenza pandemic? The Jim Gardner Memorial Lecture at the Canterbury History Foundation.

Rice, G. W (2013) A disease deadlier than war. New Zealnd Medical Journal, 126, 1378.

Wilson, N. Ferguson, C, Rice, G. W., Baker, M. G., Schrader, B., Clement, C., Thanson, G. (2017) Remembering the influenza pandemic: national survey of memorials and scope for enhancing educational value around pandemic preparedness. New Zealand Medical Journal, 130, 1465.

CCC City Libraries, 1918 Influenza Epidemic - how Christchurch coped

Interview with Professor Robert Webster, world leading virologist and author of Flu Hunter: Unlocking the Secrets of a Virus talks about the virus itself with Kim Hill Radio NZ, Saturday Morning, 8:20 am on 15 September 2018 

Interview with Jason Reeves, Ancestry's Head of Acquisitions about their inclusion of the names of all those who died in the influenza epidemic in NZ (based on Professor Rice's work) with Jim Mora, Radio NZ, 23rd September 2018.

The Last Enemy, BBC Radio Documentary, Producer Mark Burman

Spanish Flu: 'We didn't know who we'd lose next' Jennifer Meierhaus & Daniel Wainwright, BBC News, 20 September 2018

Spanish Flu: the killer that still stalks us, 100 years on The Guardian Weekly, 21 September 2018, pp. 34-35 

Historian discusses what we can learn from from our deadliest pandemic, Interview with Historian Dr Stephen Clark, News Hub Nation, 13 March 2018



Friends of Linwood Cemetery

Updated 29 September 2018 by Alexandra

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Influenza Pandemic - Linwood Cemetery


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